Ancient Igbos used to conduct brain surgery centuries ago, my late uncle had one when he was a kid. It was done by a local native doctor.
The patient will be given lots alcohol, then pinned down by people and the surgeon will split their skull and remove the tumor from the brain. Then cover the gape with herbs and bind the skull together with ropes made from palm fronds.
Patient heals over some weeks.
There are still videos on youtube about some other native African tribes conducting these surgeries successfully.
This only means that the knowledge for this type of surgery is thousands of years old in Africa.
It is now a lost art.
A close friend of mind who grew up in a rural area had his appendicitis operation done by a local native doctor.
On November 25, 1884 was the first time a western surgeon was able to perform one, his name was Dr. Rickman J. Godlee.